PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw <h3><a style="font-size: 1.17em;" title="Panorama of Brazilian Law 03-04 2015" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/7" target="_blank">Vol 4, Nos 5-6 (2016): Panorama of Brazilian Law</a></h3> <p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6</p> <p><a href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/7"><img src="/public/site/images/raphael/Capa_PBL_2016_issn.png" alt=""></a></p> <h3><a style="font-size: 1.17em;" title="Panorama of Brazilian Law 03-04 2015" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/6" target="_blank">Vol 3, Nos 3-4 (2015): Panorama of Brazilian Law</a></h3> <p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4</p> <p><a href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/6"><img src="/public/site/images/raphael/Capa_PBL_2015_issn_2.png" alt=""></a></p> <h3><a style="font-size: 1.17em;" title="Panorama of Brazilian Law 02 2014" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/4/showToc" target="_blank">Vol 2, No 2 (2014): Panorama of Brazilian Law</a></h3> <p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1</p> <p><a title="PBL 2014" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/4/showToc"><img src="/public/site/images/raphael/Capa_PBL_2014_issn3.png" alt=""></a></p> <h3><a style="font-size: 1.17em;" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/2/showToc">Vol 1, No 1 (2013): Panorama of Brazilian Law</a></h3> <p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1</p> <p><a style="font-size: 1.17em;" title="PBL 2013" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/2"><img src="/public/site/images/raphael/Capa_PBL_issn_20132.png" alt=""></a></p> <h3><a style="font-size: 1.17em;" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/5">Vol 0, No 0 (1992): Panorama of Brazilian Law</a></h3> <p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0</p> <p><a title="Panorama of Brazilian Law 1992" href="/index.php/BrLaw/issue/view/5"><img src="/public/site/images/raphael/capa_pbl_1992.png" alt=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong style="font-size: 10px;">A FINAL FOREWORD</strong></span></h3> <p>A FINAL FOREWORD“’A Panorama of Brazilian Law’ is a step towards realizing a long standing dream: To provide the world with a window to Brazilian law”.These were the concluding words of the Foreword I wrote for the collection of essays on various fields of Brazilian law, as co-editor of the “Panorama of Brazilian Law”, together with Professor Keith S. Rosenn of the University of Miami, which was published in 1992.21 years have passed and now a group of the next generation of Brazilian law scholars has undertaken to resuscitate and keep alive the idea of the Panorama by means of a permanent electronic journal.Professor Carmen Tiburcio, who contributed to the original Panorama and later substituted me as head of the Private International Law Department of the Rio de Janeiro State University, together with Raphael Carvalho de Vasconcelos and Bruno Rodrigues de Almeida, both professors of international law at the UFRRJ are leading this important initiative.Today, much more than two decades ago - Brazil, one of the BRIC countries - has become an important player in the international economy and its legal system an important factor in the proper development of international commercial relations.May this effort prosper for years and generations to come.</p> <p><strong>Jacob Dolinger, 2013</strong></p> <div> <p>__________________________________________________________________________________________________</p> <p><strong>EDITORIAL NOTE</strong></p> </div> <p>In 1992, a group of prominent Brazilian scholars led by Professors Jacob Dolinger (Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) and Keith Rosenn (University of Miami) created the journal Panorama of Brazilian Law as an attempt to provide reliable legal information on Brazilian law for non-Portuguese speakers. Originally planned as a yearbook, the ancient PBL presented papers related to several branches of Brazilian law written by respected authors. Due to several reasons, this groundbreaking project did not go ahead at that time and the inaugural issue was the only one released. In order to rescue the goals and ideas of the original project, the first number of the new Panorama of Brazilian Law was issued in 2013 covering several brands of Brazilian law. In 2014, the second issue published 18 articles, which proves that this initiative was not only feasible, but strategically necessary. In 2015, on a renewed effort to narrow the gap of academic knowledge between Brazil and other legal systems, together with the annual number in which 17 articles were featured, the ever first legendary 1992 issue of Panorama of Brazilian Law became available online. Now, the editors present this fourth issue of Panorama of Brazilian Law, composed by 18 articles covering several branches of the Brazilian legal order, available in the electronic magazine format (www.panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com) which allows a broader perspective for the broadcasting of articles and reaching of a greater number of potential researchers. For this fourth issue, papers written in English, French, Italian and Spanish were submitted. Versions of papers originally released in Portuguese or published in the context of academic conferences were also accepted. The Scientific Council is responsible for the Editorial Line of the magazine, whose goals are to spread information about Brazil’s legal order and juridical environment among non-Portuguese speakers. Formal aspects and criteria for publication are found at the www.panoramaofbrazilianlaw. com website under “about” &gt; “submissions” &gt; “author guidelines”. The call for papers for its forthcoming issue is already available. The tolerant and plural perspective of the project, which is opened to all branches of Brazilian law, was determinant for choosing not to establish a hermetic format concerning the logical organization of the articles – neither with respect to its distribution along the yearbook nor in the organization adopted by authors in its papers. The access to the online magazine is completely free of costs or registration. The editors of Panorama of Brazilian Law are pleased with the present success and positive repercussions of the project and hope to provide foreign researchers an ultimate way to access Brazilian law.</p> <p>Finally, we could not fail to mention that this fourth issue comes in a moment of sorrow. In an international perspective, there is the dawn 9 of irrational and xenophobic movements, which can only lead to the suffering of the most vulnerable. Locally, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, alma mater of this project, is amid a struggle for its very survival. On top of that, our dear friend and colleague Bruno Almeida has much prematurely left us, what fortifies the sense of urgency that all should have in life. Therefore, this present number of Panorama of Brazilian Law seeks to accomplish many things: To reinforce that knowledge is the key tool to overcome fear, bringing the different peoples together. To prove that some battles are worth fighting and that our beloved Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, for all that it represents, must not (and surely will not) perish. To overcome the loss of a fondly friend, by carrying on one of its projects.</p> <p>Brazil, May 2017.</p> <p><strong>Raphael Carvalho de Vasconcelos</strong></p> <p><strong>Alexandre Sales Cabral Arlota</strong></p> <div> <p>________________________________________________________________________________________________</p> </div> <p class="P-TituloCap"><strong>HONORARY EDITORS</strong></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Prof. Jacob Dolinger, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Carmen Tiburcio, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Bruno Rodrigues de Almeida,&nbsp;In Memoriam</p> <p class="referencia">&nbsp;</p> <p class="referencia"><strong>EDITORS-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Prof. Raphael Carvalho de Vasconcelos, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro / Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Alexandre Arlota, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.</p> <p class="PTexto">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Prof. Augusto Jaeger Junior, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Cláudia Lima Marques, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Cláudio Michelon, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Colin Crawford, Tulane University, United States</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Conrado Hubner Mendes, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Deo Campos Dutra, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Diego P. Fernández Arroyo, Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris - Sciences Po, France</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Fabrício Bertini Pasquot Polido, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Gabriel Valente dos Reis, Universidad de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Gustavo Vieira da Costa Cerqueira, Université de Strasbourg, France</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Iacyr de Aguilar Vieira, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Jamile Bergamaschine Mata Diz, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. João Maurício Adeodato, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. John H. Rooney, University of Miami, United States</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Luiz Edson Fachin, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Luís Roberto Barroso, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro / Supremo Tribunal Federal, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Marcelo da Costa Pinto Neves, Universidade Nacional de Brasília, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Marcos Vinício Chein Feres, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Marilda Rosado, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Nadia de Araujo, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Paulo Borba Casella, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Rachel Sztajn, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Véronique Champeil-Desplats, Université de Paris Ouest - Nanterre La Défense, France</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Vicente Marotta Rangel, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Wagner Menezes, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Will Kymlicka, Queen’s University, Canada</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Zeno Veloso, Universidade Federal do Pará, Brazil</p> <p class="P-TituloCap">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>AD HOC CONSULTANTS AND PEER REVIEW BOARD</strong></span></p> <p class="referencia">The following legal scholars are members of the board of ad hoc consultants of the Panorama of Brazilian Law. They have been selected among the 87 reviewers currently enrolled in the site of the electronic magazine.</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Ana Carolina Marossi Batista, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Carolina Araújo de Azevedo, University of Oklahoma, United States</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Daniel Giotti de Paula, INTEJUR, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Danielle Campos, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Ely Caetano Xavier Junior, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Emília Lana de Freitas Castro, Universität Hamburg, Germany</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Flavia Machado Cruz, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Henrique Sartori de Almeida Prado, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Henrique Weil Afonso, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Joseli Fiorin Fiorin Gomes, UniRitter, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Leonardo Ostwald Vilardi, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Maira Fajardo Linhares Pereira, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Orlando José Guterres Costa Jr, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Pedro Baumgratz Paula, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Ricardo Campos, Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany</p> <p class="referencia">Prof. Sergio Maia Tavares, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil</p> <p>Prof. Tulio Louchard Picinini Teixeira, UNIFEMM, Brazil</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>DEVELOPMENT EDITORS</strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Ruth Navarro, Tribunal Permanente de Revisión - MERCOSUR, Paraguay</p> <p class="referencia">&nbsp;</p> <div> <p>___________________________________________________________________________________________</p> </div> <p class="P-titulo1"><strong>EDITORIAL POLICY AND SUBMISSION GUIDELINES</strong></p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><strong>Reasons</strong></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">One should not deny that there are studies on Brazilian law already available in foreign languages. Such efforts are, however, mainly isolated initiatives. Law sectors with traditional external interest, such as business law and investment’s regulation, naturally receive attention of foreign researchers and concentrate the most publications about Brazilian law in other languages​​.</p> <p class="PTexto">Portuguese constitutes also a natural barrier to put forward Brazilian law abroad. A legal journal entirely released in foreign languages is intended to contribute to break this barrier stimulating academic research focused on international researchers and scholars.</p> <p class="PTexto">It has been noted that the lack of updated material on Brazilian legislation in idioms other than Portuguese constitutes an obstacle for interested scholars or potential investors.</p> <p class="PTexto">At the same time, it is always desirable to increase the integration of Brazilian Law Academy in the international scenario, thus facilitating the access of foreigners to take knowledge and participate in the discussions in Brazilian legal arena.</p> <p class="PTexto">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>General Notes</strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Panorama of Brazilian Law is a journal that publishes articles, book reviews and essays substantially related to Brazilian Law. Within such context, research works and papers focused on Theory of Law, Sociology of Law, Philosophy of Law and History of Law are also acceptable.</p> <p class="PTexto">This journal is opened to different theoretical and methodological approaches, including interdisciplinary papers and articles that fall into Law &amp; Society, and Law &amp; Economics research Fields.</p> <p class="PTexto">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Publication Frequency</strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">PBL is an annual journal and is released every second semester.</p> <p class="PTexto">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Double Blind Peer Review</strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Prior to publication, Editors will analyze submissions to assess whether or not it fits the PBL’s Editorial Policy. The submission is then sent to two anonymous reviewers who evaluate qualitatively its content and style in accordance with blind peer review principles. Reviewers take 45 to 120 days to provide their comments, which will be forwarded to the author(s) for acknowledgment or revision proceedings. In this latter case, authors can send the reviewed version back to PBL for re-evaluation.</p> <p class="PTexto">Authors will be notified about the status of evaluation process, being able to access reviewer’s comments on their articles. Exceptionally, Panorama of Brazilian Law’s Editorial Board can also directly invite authors to publish articles.</p> <p class="PTexto">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Submission Guidelines </strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Panorama of Brazilian Law (PBL) currently publishes articles and papers written in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish or Swedish not previously published elsewhere. For such matter, PBL will also accept English, French, German, Italian, Spanish or Swedish versions of works originally published in Portuguese.</p> <p class="PTexto">Papers written in other languages are subject to specific call for papers previously released.</p> <p class="PTexto">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Technical Details</strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Submissions must have a minimum of 15 pages and a maximum of 30 pages of 2100 characters. They must also meet ABNT’s standards (Brazilian Technical Norms Association). Under special circumstances, submissions exceeding the maximum limit might be published depending of Editors’ discretionary decision.</p> <p class="PTexto">Paper Size: Letter (8,5 x 11 in) text editor: Word for Windows 6.0 or higher. Margins (Left and top, 3 cm – right and bottom, 2 cm); Font: Times New Roman, Size 12 paragraph: left aligned; Space before text: 0; Space after text: 12 points; line Spacing: 1,5 spacing. Text highlights made in italic (rather than underlined).</p> <p class="PTexto">Title with a maximum of 8 words, uppercase, bold, written English, and translation to English for those submissions written in French, German, Italian, Spanish or Swedish.</p> <p class="PTexto">Summary, written in English with version in English for submissions written in French, German, Italian, Spanish or Swedish, with about 150 words, Left aligned, containing study Field, objectives, applied methodology (encouraged, but not mandatory), results and conclusions.</p> <p class="PTexto">Minimum of three and maximum of five keywords in English with translation to English if Submission is written in French, German, Italian, Spanish or Swedish.</p> <p class="PTexto">References can be cited whether in footnotes (according to Annex I of NBR 6023/2002) or using the Author-Date style in the body of text (including author’s Last name, year and page of the publication). In all cases, complete bibliographical references are mandatory in alphabetical order at the end of the submission, under NBR-6023’s rules.</p> <p class="PTexto">Diagrams, Graphics and tables must have title and indicate source, should be placed within the body of text, properly titled and referenced and should avoid duplicity.</p> <p class="PTexto">Prior to submission, authors must make sure that full name of each author, institutional affiliation and personal academic information, E-mail accounts, social network contacts and/or&nbsp; phone number are informed ONLY in SUBMISSION FORM (step 3 of the submission proceedings).</p> <p class="PTexto"><strong>IMPORTANT</strong> <strong>if any of the above mentioned data (full name of each author, institutional affiliation and personal academic information, E-mail accounts, social network contacts and/or phone number) figures on submission file, it will be immediately rejected for hindering blind peer review. </strong></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">&nbsp;</p> <p class="P-TituloCap"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Copyrights</strong></span></p> <p class="P-TituloCap">Panorama of Brazilian Law employs Open Journal Access policies.</p> <p class="PTexto">Authors are fully and exclusively responsible for their submissions.</p> <p>Upon submitting a paper to Panorama of Brazilian Law, authors fully agree with cession of copyrights to Panorama of Brazilian Law (PBL), and expressly allow either publishing it in electronic media or printed versions for research purposes. Full reproduction of articles is prohibited. Citation of parts of text without previous solicitation is allowed provided that the source is properly identified.</p> <div> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro en-US PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN LAW 1075-1343 <p class="PTexto">Panorama of Brazilian Law employs Open Journal Access policies.</p> <p class="PTexto">Authors are fully and exclusively responsible for their submissions.</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work on a non-comercial basis with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal and indicating if any changes were made.&nbsp;If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the&nbsp;<a id="same_license_popup" class="helpLink" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">same license</a>&nbsp;as the original.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/161 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6 Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 1 435 LA SOCIETÀ COOPERATIVA BRASILIANA http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/106 <p>Sommario: Considerando la vastità del tema e dei problemi che ne derivano, trattasi di esposizione relativamente sintetica sulla società cooperativa brasiliana, concentrandosi in particolar modo sui seguenti punti: (i) sviluppo storico-legislativo sul cooperativismo e sulla società cooperativa in Brasile; (ii) caratteri principali dello schema giuridico-organizzativo della società cooperativa brasiliana; e (iii) numeri e dati statistici ed economici complessivi sulla attività economica svolta tramite le cooperative in Brasile e sulla diffusione (costituzione), in Brasile, di quel tipo societario chiamato “sociedade cooperativa”. Il testo quindi si concentra esclusivamente sulla società cooperativa brasiliana, assente qualsiasi tentativo di confronto diretto con la disciplina della società cooperativa italiana, anche se gli esperti in materia possono indirettamente cogliere i contrasti tra l’uno e l’altro ordinamento giuridico, trovando somiglianze e differenze tra i rispettivi schemi legali della cooperativa.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p412</p> Danilo Borges dos Santos Gomes de Araujo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 412 430 LA OBLIGACIÓN INTERAMERICANA DE INVESTIGAR Y LA RESPUESTA BRASILEÑA http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/112 <p class="p1">Resumen: El presente artículo analiza la obligación de investigar violaciones de Derechos Humanos dictadas por la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos en los casos en los cuales fue parte Brasil. De esta manera, son analizados los casos brasileños que fueron juzgados por la Corte Interamericana, las sentencias en específico y, cuando existentes, las Resoluciones de Cumplimiento de Sentencia. A través de dicha análisis, se concluyó que las condenas relacionadas a la obligación de investigar dictadas por la Corte Interamericana no llevaron a una grane actuación en el ámbito interno por parte del Estado brasileño.</p><p class="p1">DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p393</p><p class="p1"> </p> Luiza Drummond Veado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 393 411 NUEVO CONSTITUCIONALISMO LATINOAMERICANO: EL ESTADO MODERNO EN CONTEXTOS PLURALISTAS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/114 <p>Resumen: Las discusiones sobre el Estado moderno, fundado en la idea de que nación y país se confunden, generan una tensión permanente en las antiguas colonias europeas en América Latina. La existencia de los pueblos y las civilizaciones indígenas, con sus propias costumbres y sensibilidades legales, no se tuvo en cuenta en la construcción de los sistemas políticos y judiciales del continente. Al largo de las últimas décadas, el surgimiento de movimientos sociales que luchan por el reconocimiento del carácter plural del continente, junto con los cambios constitucionales profundos convencionalmente llamado «nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano», hace que estas encrucijadas del Estado Clásico sean de suma importancia a los juristas del Sur.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p376</p><p> </p> Gabriel Barbosa Gomes de Oliveira Filho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 376 392 CHALLENGES FACED BY FOREIGN INVESTORS IN THE BRAZIL’S ENERGY SECTOR http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/119 <p>Abstract: The Brazilian energy sector suffered constantly changes during the past years. The process of transformation looked for a competitive market aiming funds to develop infrastructure in Brazil. Foreign investment is necessary to develop and strengthen the energy market, but the sector still present some challenges to be faced by the foreign investors. As consequence, some questions shall be raised in connection with the real effectiveness of mechanisms imposed to foreign investment at its entrance in the Brazilian energy sector. Does the Brazilian legal framework provide legal certainty to the foreign investors interested in investing in the energy sector? The objective of this article is to provide an overview of reform made to the energy market and current hindrances to the investor’s entry in such sector.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p347</p> Fernanda Torres Volpon Luciene Machado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 347 375 THE MARRAKESH TREATY RATIFICATION IN BRAZIL: IMMEDIATE EFFECTS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/125 <p>Abstract: This paper willpresent the ratification process of the Marrakesh Treaty in Brazil, its place within the legal system and the likely effects on copyright limitations. We structure the paper in two parts. First we show how the Brazilian Constitution governs the reception of human rights international treaties and conventions and expose their effects throughout the system. We follow by the presentation of the Marrakesh Treaty’s ratification process in Brazil, concentrating on the justifications and results of the legislative procedures. Finally, we consider the likely and possible effects on public policy, legal change and the judicial interpretation of the limitations. We choose to use primary official sources to present the questions for analyses. Our method of choice is inductive, since we extensively use legislative records to elaborate on the political processes and legal rationales behind it.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p328</p> Allan Rocha de Souza Alexandre de Serpa Pinto Fairbanks ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 328 346 THE INTRODUCTION OF ARBITRATION WITHIN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL CONTEXT http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/109 <p>Abstract: The present article analyzes the introduction of arbitration as an alternative method of conflict resolution within the Brazilian legal context. In this sense, after a preliminary remark on the origins and concept of arbitration, this text focuses on the construction of the institute of arbitration within Brazilian legal framework. Thus, the aspects regarding the enactment of Law No. 9.307/96 are examined, especially concerning the requisites for the establishment of an effective arbitral convention. Finally, the structure of the law in regard to pre-arbitration facts, such as parties’ autonomy and the choice of applicable laws, and the arbitration per se as to the execution of the clause and the aspects concerning the delivery of the award are studied. As a result, the importance of the introduction of such Law it is noticed, as it deeply changed Brazil’s legal framework regarding the arbitral convention, making a more palpable and viable method of solving disputes nowadays.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p306</p> Savio R Sordi Tatiana de Almeida F R Cardoso Squeff ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 306 327 CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LEGAL DISCIPLINE OF THE NON-FINANCIAL INFORMS (BRAZIL AND EUROPEAN UNION) http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/111 <p>Ab</p><p>stract: From the theoretical reference of the sustainability, the article analyses the question of the incorporation of both social and environmental order considerations to the business and operations carried out by the companies, through the public dissemination of the performances in such areas. The research, focused on the quality, under a exploratory profile, and based in the bibliographic and documental review techniques, such as the data collection, is herein developed with the goal of identifying and analyzing, comparatively, the normative treatment applied to the scope of the public divulging of non-financial reports (the so called sustainability informs or reports), accordingly to both the Brazilian and European perspectives. As noted, in Brazil, there is no legal obligation to publish the sustainability reports, although the publishing is recommended to the companies by BM&amp;FBOVESPA (administrative institution of the capital market), since December of 2011, through an instrument that characterizes a “soft” Law. On the other hand, in the European Union (EU) scope, there has been a recognition of the necessity to increase the transparency of social and environmental information by certain corporate societies and groups of companies, which is considered an imperative element for their social responsibility. Therefore, both the European Parliament and the European Union Counsel edited directives (2013/2014), regarding the subject of the publishing of non-financial information. The legislative acts in question are destined to all the members of the EU, compelling them to intervene in the national legal structures (“hard” Law) in order to transpose, to the respective structures, under mandatory character and established deadline, the general norms that consecrate certain common parameters regarding the subject.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p284</p> Vinicius Figueiredo Chaves Alexandre Folly Nogueira Sertã ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 284 305 THE QUEST FOR DYNAMISM IN CONTEMPORARY LAW: MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF LEGAL CERTAINTY http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/118 <p>Abstract: The legal principles’ evolution towards a post-positivist conception has led to the acknowledgement of their normative power. Although such movement has made legal systems better suited in reaching decisions adapted to contemporary societies, it has casted uncertainty upon allowing the vague use of abstract expressions, which the concrete meaning is difficult to understand. In this sense, it is necessary that the possible meanings of each legal principle be narrowed down and that a proper method be coined for weighting legal principles that eventually collide. The scope of this academic paper is to address legal certainty in its multiple dimensions, in the attempt to unveil its essential meanings.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p265</p> Alexandre Sales Cabral Arlota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 265 283 ARBITRATION AND PUBLIC POLICY IN BRAZIL: A STUDY BASED ON ‘LULA CASE’ http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/102 <p>Abstract: This work examines the subject of jurisdiction and arbitrability of issues related to energy and natural resources in the world, in order to enhance the arbitration institute in Brazil. The study is based on a recent case pending in Brazilian courts, named “Lula case”, which refer to a dispute between the State and concessionaires that grant the right to explore and produce oil and gas in a determined area. The presence of arbitration clauses in the concession contracts for exploration and production of oil and gas in Brazil raises questions related to the disposability of the rights concerned. It is paramount to set benchmarks on arbitral tribunals’ power to decide on these matters and to define to what extent arbitral awards may defy public policy, national sovereignty over natural resources and national courts’ jurisdiction to render decisions in this regard. Otherwise, the randomness of judicial decisions makes the arbitration clause ineffective. Moreover, the Lula case arises substantive issues related to the necessity to protect investors in the oil and gas industry, since acts arguably connect to the State policy power may cause damages to the private parties. The work critically examines the decision given by national courts so far and proposes an international approach to face situations involving the State and the necessity to protect investors in the oil and gas industry.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p223</p> <p> </p> Carolina Barreira Lins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 223 264 DOMESTIC LAW AND INTERNATIONAL LAW IN BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/127 <p>Abstract: International law, which main sources are agreements and international conventions, is increasingly present in internal affairs in such way that it is difficult to imagine an area of national law which has not been affected in some way by standards imposed by agreements. But how and to what extent international law will be applied internally will depend on the way in which States comply with their international obligations. Therefore, it is essential to know how States bestow domestic legal effect to their agreements. The theoretical question about the relationship between domestic law and international law is usually presented on the basis of dualistic (or pluralistic) and monistic theories, that can not, however, comprehensively cover all aspects of this relationship. The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil recognizes, yet indirectly, international agreements as part of domestic law, but left important aspects related to its application without answers. Thus, the Brazilian judiciary has faced critical issues relating to the impact of agreements in domestic law, particularly regarding its duration, effects and hierarchical position. Despite the Brazilian judicial performance, legal uncertainties regarding the matter persist, which will be exposed in this article.</p> <p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p197</p> Ana Cristina Paulo Pereira Eraldo Silva Júnior Brenda Maria Ramos Araújo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 197 222 LATIN AMERICAN AND BRAZILIAN CONSTITUTIONALISM: THE RIGHTS OF THE TRADITIONAL PEOPLES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/58 <p>Abstract: This article presents the XXI’s constitutionalism as the doctrine of the constitutional law hich supposes to be a theoretical framework able to assure the interpretation of the political and social processes from which political constitutions emerge. Thus, the 88’s Brazilian Constitution proceeded to the recognition of the fundamental rights and norms regarding theprotection of minority rights. The purpose of this work is to investigate if this supposed innovative characteristic of the 88’s Brazilian Constitution is able or not to set historicalconstitutionalism as the continuity or maintenance of the conservative processes of the politicaland social status quo in the country. This article intends to discuss the nature of constitutional changes and the impacts of these changes on the development of constitutionalism in Brazil by analyzing the extent to which political, social, and cultural latin-american processes influenced changes in Brazilian constitutionalism.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p172</p> Monique Falcão Ricardo Falbo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 172 196 HUMAN RIGHTS, INEQUALITY AND PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION: A CASE STUDY ON SANITATION FROM BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/116 <p>Abstract: Disaggregated data on the relative success of the UN millennium goals made clear that the progress achieved in many countries, Brazil included, was not equitable, positioning the question “How to address inequalities?” as the next pressing challenge in human rights. Public law litigation could be regarded as a tool to reduce inequality, particularly in Brazil, given a unique institution of its legal system, the Public Prosecutors Office. This paper uses public interest litigation discussing access to sanitation services to test this hypothesis. In 2013, only 58.2% of the households had access to sanitation, with significant regional inequality in coverage. Boolean analysis was applied to assess court orders (2003-2013) and results showed a disconnect between litigation and demand for sanitation, indicating that areas that were better off in various social and economic indicators were the ones receiving attention. The paper suggests reflections on how public interest litigation could target those most in need.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p149</p> Ana Paula Barcellos Marcia Castro Ricardo Moura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 149 171 SOVEREIGNTY AND THE MOTION TO IMPEACH BRAZIL’S PRESIDENT http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/132 <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves /> <w:TrackFormatting /> <w:HyphenationZone>21</w:HyphenationZone> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF /> <w:LidThemeOther>PT-BR</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark /> <w:EnableOpenTypeKerning /> <w:DontFlipMirrorIndents /> <w:OverrideTableStyleHps /> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math" /> <m:brkBin m:val="before" /> <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-" /> <m:smallFrac m:val="off" /> <m:dispDef /> <m:lMargin m:val="0" /> <m:rMargin m:val="0" /> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup" /> <m:wrapIndent m:val="1440" /> <m:intLim m:val="subSup" /> <m:naryLim m:val="undOvr" /> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">Abstract: This article aims to demonstrate that public policies involving the economy follow, in their process of formulation, implementation and especially results, different paths than those for the exercise of political power.This involves a question of decisions. The decisions of public officials and even of judges are not aseptic, but instead ideological.Economic crises and political disaffections over these choices cannot serve as justifications for removing that leader, elected by popular vote, especially when the “rules of the political game”, have all been respected.When democracy is threatened by such incidents, motivated by an economic downturn, notably in supposed exceptions that in reality flaunt the constitutional and legal order, we are faced with a serious injury to sovereignty in the internal plane, perhaps even a coup d’état.This article will analyze the question of the motion to impeach Brazil’s president, demonstrating there is no legal support because she has not committed any act of malfeasance in office. And we conclude that in name of seeking more successful economic results, to serve political demands that are most of the time instigated by ideological passions, a society cannot ride roughshod over fundamental rights assured by the Constitution.</p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p110</p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="true" DefSemiHidden="true" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99" LatentStyleCount="267"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Normal" /> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1" /> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 2" /> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 3" /> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" 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mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} --> <!--[endif] --> Vania Siciliano Aieta Ricardo Lodi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 110 148 DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICIABILITY OF THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION – THE BRAZILIAN EXPERIENCE http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/107 <p>Abstract: Democratic regimes establish themselves to the extent to which they are accepted by the majority of the population living under them. This acceptance is translated into a knowledge of and trust in their respective political and legal institutions. Quality education is relevant to democratic governance and citizenship building, as it provides access to the cognitive tools needed for significant political participation. This paper analyzes the interactions between democracy and quality education in the light of judicial proceedings being applied to the right to education, focusing on Brazilian Supreme Court (STF) activities in the period between 2000 and 2010.</p> Nina Beatriz Ranieri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 94 109 LA LUTTE CONTRE LA CORRUPTION DANS LE SYSTEME INTERAMERICAIN DE PROTECTION DES DROITS DE L’HOMME http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/115 <p><span lang="EN-US">Résumé: Cet article vise à montrer les stratégies conçues par le Système interaméricain de protection des droits de l´homme en matière de prévention, de détection et des poursuites contre la corruption dans la gestion publique. Pour développer notre réflexion, nous allons présenter les principales approches qu’envisagent expliquer ce phénomène, ainsi que montrer l’articulation entre les principaux organismes supranationaux liées à l’Organisation des Etats Américains pour donner des réponses rationnelles et efficaces à cette forme de criminalité.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US">Abstract: This article aims to show the strategies designed by the American system of protection of the human rights in the prevention, detection and action against corruption in public administration. To develop our reflection, we will present the main approaches that consider explain this, and show the relationship between the main supranational organizations linked to the Organization of American States to give rational and effective responses to such crime .</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US">DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p64</span></p> George Sarmento ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 64 93 LA DÉMOCRATIE, L’INTOLÉRANCE POLITIQUE ET LES DROITS HUMAINS : LE BRESIL ET LA CRISE ACTUELLE http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/110 <p>Résumé: L’atmosphère d’intolérance dans les démocraties contemporaines est incompatible avec le concept de démocratie, dans un sens plus large ; ce qui présente clairement la corrélation étroite entre la démocratie et les droits humains, et aussi comme la négation des droits humains sont révélés dans les périodes de  crise économique et politique. Cet article essaie de traiter de la question de la démocratie dans la vie quotidienne, en abordant des questions de politique actuelle dans la réalité brésilienne contemporaine. <br /> <br />Abstract: The atmosphere of intolerance in contemporary democracies is incompatible with the concept of democracy in a wider sense, which shows the close correlation between democracy and human rights, and also how human rights deficits are exposed in full force in periods of strong economic and political crisis. This article seeks to address these issues so intersected in contemporary Brazilian reality, addressing the issue of the daily derepression.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p56</p> Eduardo C. B. Bittar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 56 63 LE PRINCIPE DE LA TOLÉRANCE COMME CONTOUR DE L’ORDRE PUBLIC: LA CIRCULATION DES MODÈLES FAMILIAUX AU BRÉSIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/123 <p>Résumé: L'applicabilité d'une loi étrangère dans les relations familiales - dans laquelle les différences entre les normes de deux systèmes juridiques sont en preuve en raison des aspects culturels et sociologiques - génère place pour la discussion sur les limites et les valeurs de l’ordre publique comme une exception. Dans ce contexte, la tolérance apparaît comme un outil pertinent pour une compréhension plus profonde du principe de l’ordre publique.</p><p>Abstract: The applicability of a foreign law in family relations - in which the differences between the norms of two legal systems are in evidence due to cultural and sociological aspects - generates room for discussion about limits and values of public policy as an exception. In this context, tolerance emerges as a relevant tool for a deeper understanding of the principle of public policy.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p36</p><p> </p> Gustavo Ferraz de Campos Mônaco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 36 55 LA PERSONNE MORALE SELON LE DROIT INTERNATIONAL PRIVÉ BRÉSILIEN ACTUEL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/124 <p>Resumé: Pour déterminer la nationalité des personnes morales, il faut déterminer certains critères. Le Droit International Privé reconnu trois, qui sont: <em>i)</em> de l’incorporation; <em>ii)</em> du siège social; et <em>iii)</em> du contrôle. Au Brésil, il est adopté le critère de l´incorporation.  En conséquence, une société brésilienne est celle qui a été incorporé au Brésil et qui a son siège administratif dans ce pays. La juridiction brésilienne sera alors compétente pour juger de ce qui se réfèrent à des entreprises brésiliennes, mais pas seulement pour eux. Les tribunaux brésiliens peuvent également juger les personnes morales étrangères qui y ont une agence, une filiale ou une succursale au Brésil.</p>Abstract: Private International Law traditionally acknowledges three criteria to determine the nationality of legal entities, which are the place of: i) the incorporation; or ii) the registered office; or iii) its control . Specifically in relation to the Brazilian Law, a company is deemed as Brazilian, should it had been incorporated in Brazil and should it have its headquarters in that country. Brazilian courts will, thus, be competent to exert authority and rule matters related to Brazilian companies. However, Brazilian courts may also settle controversies regarding legal entities which have an agency, a branch or a subsidiary in Brazil.<p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a4.n5-6.p11</p> Carmen Tiburcio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 11 35 FOREWORD, CREDITS, TABLE OF CONTENTS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/160 Raphael Carvalho de Vasconcelos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-05-29 2017-05-29 4 5-6 1 10 PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN LAW 03-04 2015 http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/105 DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4</a> PBL Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-11-01 2015-11-01 4 5-6 1 445 FOREWORD, CREDITS, TABLE OF CONTENTS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/104 PBL Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 1 8 THE BRAZILIAN ‘ECOLOGICAL-ICMS’: A PES SCHEME BASED ON DISTRIBUTION OF TAX REVENUE http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/101 <p>The scope of this legal brief is to analyze the Brazilian legislation concerning the ‘Ecological-ICMS’, the ‘ecological’ State value-added tax imposed on the circulation of goods and services – ICMS. Using a deductive method, it was identified this tax mechanism operates as a type of ‘payment for ecosystem services’ (PES) scheme in practice, offering the possibility to stimulate environmental protection by distributing revenue from ICMS collected by States to Municipalities that promote conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity. This type of measure was motivated by the need to address challenges in providing economic compensation for Municipalities that undertook environmental protection measures in Brazil, and can serve as a form of positive incentive for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p421">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p421</a></p> Matheus Linck Bassani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 421 439 RIGHTS, DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT: THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM’S ROLE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/51 <p>This article seeks to discuss whether and how the judicial system has been assuming a new institutional role in the design of public policies aimed at promoting of Economical Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) in developing countries. Considering that these rights are crucial for human and social development, the article discusses the ways in which the judicial system might interfere with the process of development.Alongside a theoretical debate, the article presents a functionalist comparative study of the public interest litigation in Brazil, India and South Africa. It focuses on how judges seek to promote ESCR as well as on the benefits and problems of their intervention in public policies created by democratic governments and legislatures.The diagnosis that judicial systems around the world play different roles from the ones recommended by the economic neoliberal mainstream shows that several different institutional arrangements are possible and that some of them might be more adequate to the reality of the developing world. Therefore, the article hopes to provide insights to rethink global governance and the current knowledge on law and political economy from a new paradigm.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p394">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p394</a></p> Vivian Maria Pereira Ferreira Natalia Langenegger ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 394 420 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND JUDICIALIZATION OF POLITICS: THE “JUDICIAL” RIGHT TO HEALTHCARE IN BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/69 <p>The right to healthcare in Brazil is seriously protected by the courts. Judicialization of everyday implementation of this public policy is a fact. One explanation may be provided by the way judges understand the effectiveness of this right. People hold subjective right to individualized healthcare benefits, and so they hold standing to sue the state in order to achieve it, regardless any consideration of public policies. Through an analysis of the jurisprudence on this issue, this paper aims to provide a critical understanding not just about what is actually happening in Brazilian courts regarding healthcare, but also to criticize it. The conclusion is that a “strong” conception of constitutionalism and fundamental rights may revel itself as “weak,” from the standpoint of general equality. Judicialization ends up empting the public debate, leading the task of solving the distribution of scarce resources to a “gowned aristocracy.”</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p358">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p358</a></p><p> </p> Bruno Irion Coletto Pedro da Silva Moreira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 358 393 THE STATUTE OF THE CITY AND THE MASTER PLAN: INSTRUMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/54 <p>The Master Plan is an important instrument to promote significant changes in Brazilian cities in order to achieve a sustainable development and create a new relationship between man and the environment. As far as this planning is concerned, the Master Plan is a basic tool to stablish guidelines to meet citizens necessities, as well as quality of life and social-economic development. For this purpose, citizens supervision and participation in local activities are necessary, so that Constitutional principles and democracy are accomplished. Civil society should be part of the decision-making process concerning enviromental public policies, as well as integrate elaboration, and supervision of these policies, taking into consideration that the public authorities, as well as the society, have to protect and defend the environment for the future generations (article 225, of the Federal Constitution). In this context, this task aims, firstly, evaluare the general guidelines od the Statute of the City (Law nº 10.257/01) and the importance of the Master Plans. Afterwards, adresses the participatory management as a way of implementing the sustainable cities.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p342">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p342</a></p> Gabriela Soldano Garcez Mariana Vicente Braga Carmello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 342 357 PATENTS ON GENE SEQUENCES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/71 <p>The patents on gene sequences are a controversial theme in the setting of intellectual property. The discussion revolves around the supposed inventiveness of these genetic materials: would they be considered true inventions or mere discoveries? It is certain that there is no unanimity of treatment. This study sought to systematize the patentability on genetic materials, under the decision on the Myriad Case, decided by the U. S. Supreme Court. Also, an analysis of the Brazilian legislation was necessary, as well as an understanding of the Brazilian Patent Office’s practice. Considerations were made regarding whether the protection of biotechnological inventions is necessary, pondering the mandatory social purpose of the scientific and technological development established by the Brazilian Constitution.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p301">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p301</a></p> Clarisse de la Cerda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 301 341 FREEDOM OF PRESS AND JUDICIARY CENSORSHIP IN BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/66 <p>This paper intends to provide an overview on freedom of press under the 1988 Brazilian constitution. Despite living the longest democratic term of Brazilian history – twenty seven years so far, the constitutional and democratic project are under a clear and present threat, this time coming from an unsuspicious player in the democratic game: the judiciary branch of the state. The 2009 Estado de São Paulo case reflects how such threat has been identified by some justices belonging to the Brazilian supreme court – the S.T.F. - committed with a democratic and constitutional culture. The threat is scattered all over the land, coming from individual members and sometimes from several states´ appeal courts of both state or federal degrees. Either we enjoy plainfully the fundamental rights or we do not live in an actual democracy, in the western liberal and bourgeois concept of it. Becoming aware of it, rising up legal resistance against such threat and spreading the news for the whole citizenship is a necessary step to consolidate democracy in Brazil and to push away authoritarian political regimes.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p276">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p276</a></p> Marco Aurelio Peri Guedes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 276 300 THE APPLICATION OF THE HAGUE CONVENTION ON PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND CO-OPERATION IN RESPECT OF INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION OF 1993 IN BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/72 <p>This article talks about the application of the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-Operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption of 1993 in Brazil. Due to socio-economical circumstances, there are many orphans and abandoned children in Brazil that need care, love and attention. Providing these children a new family would give them a chance to build-up a new life in respect to their best interest. This work analyzes Brazilian domestic rules on international adoption, as well as the application of the Convention in Brazil. It criticizes how the Convention is applied in Brazil and the country´s role on the international net of international adoption.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p254">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p254</a></p> Marcos Vinicius Torres Pereira Lara Oliveira Gonçalves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 254 275 BUSINESS PURPOSE AS A TAX AVOIDANCE CONDITION IN CORPORATE REORGANIZATIONS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/52 <p>With the approval of the general norm of tax avoidance in the national tax laws, there are several judgments of the Administrative Council of Tax Appeals – Conselho Administrativo de Recursos Fiscais (CARF), which have used a tax avoidance institute of comparative law to consider specific practices resulting from companies’ mergers, splits or amalgamation as abusive tax planning. It is known as the “business purpose doctrine”, which has been running the Counselours of the CARF to establish limits on the exercise of business activity, but still little discussed by the Brazilian doctrine. In summary, this new approach seeks to prevent that corporate transactions of this kind are carried out with the purpose of building a diverse legal reality of the factual, under the cover of legal formalism. The legality in corporate reorganizations focusing on the business purpose theory has been subject of compliance with three basic requirements: the temporality of business, the interdependence of the parties and the normality of the operation. In spite of the controversies regarding the legitimacy of the institute, it is noted that adopting a business purpose test seems plausible, once the institute is identified with the cause of the legal business.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p222">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p222</a></p> Marciano Buffon Isaías Luz da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 222 253 THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW WITHIN NATIONAL LEGISLATION ON TOBACCO CONTROL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/61 <p>The present article, taking into account advances in international rights and the need for domestic implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) standards, has the objective of analyzing the competence to bring domestic and international regulations to fruition, with the purpose of creating coordinated public policies for tobacco control. So, it is possible to argue that the FCTC, by means of its guidelines, laid down at the Conferences of the Parties (COPs) and which are binding to all members states of the convention, paves the way for international regulation. Domestically, such regulation has to observe DOP guidelines, there being leeway for organizations like Brazil’s ANVISA to bring those guidelines into action, such as the one related to FTCT articles 9 and 10, which limit the use of flavour additives in tobacco products, as a way of implementing international standards within the country. There is also no conflict between free enterprise and tobacco control given that, as stated by the Constitutional Court of Colombia in a process involving the constitutionality of restrictions to tobacco advertising, this is a market that should not be stimulated, but rather merely tolerated.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p197">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p197</a></p> Luis Renato Vedovato ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 197 221 ECONOMIC CRISIS, DEGLOBALIZATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS: THE CHALLENGES OF THE COSMOPOLITAN CITIZENSHIP IN THE VIEW OF DISCOURSE THEORY http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/57 <p>This article ‘Economic crisis, deglobalization and human rights discusses the challenges of the cosmopolitan citizenship in the perspective of discourse theory, reflecting on the devices and perspectives of human rights culture in the contemporary changing legal paradigms.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p170">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p170</a></p> Eduardo C. B. Bittar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 170 196 NEW TRENDS IN MIGRATORY AND REFUGEE LAW IN BRAZIL: THE EXPANDED REFUGEE DEFINITION http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/78 <p class="western">This paper aims to explore new trends in Brazilian refugee and migratory law in the last 20 years. In doing so it addresses the evolution of the definition of “refugee” in Brazil, expanding the eligibility grounds provided by the 1951 Geneva Convention on the Status of Refugees (1951 Convention). Reviewing international and regional refugee law, the article analyzes the broader understanding of the notion of “refuge” and its complexity expressed in regional and national legal frameworks, taking account of lawyers, scholars and activists who criticize the narrow scope of the classical refugee definition from 1951 which has become distant from current refugee voices and struggles. At the domestic level, although the 1980 Aliens Statute (Act. n. 6815/80) is still in effect, there have been important changes in refugee law in Brazil since the implementation of the 1997 Refugee Statute (Act n. 9.474/97), influenced by the 1984 Cartagena Declaration (a regional soft law instrument) regarding the definition of “refugee”. Exploring the interconnection of the Refugee Statute and complementary forms of human rights protection which fall outside the scope of international refugee law, the article concludes that in the specific case of Haitians in Brazil, the broader protections of Brazilianrefugee law should be available rather than the complementary systemof humanitarian visas.</p><p class="western">DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p143">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p143</a></p> Catherine Tinker Laura Madrid Sartoretto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 143 169 IDENTITY IN LAW: THE SECOND MEDICAL USE AND THE DRUGS FOR NEGLECTED DISEASES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/60 <p>This paper is dedicated to presenting a normative political institutional approach, which may creatively reconstruct the hermeneutics of the Brazilian Industrial Property Rights Act in the specific case of the second medical use of known substances in the matter of drugs for neglected diseases. However, the fact of having the same chemical substance, as a point of departure, might signify that the incremented drug does not fulfil the requisites of patentability according to the traditional legal deduction practised in Brazilian courts. Methodologically, the theoretical reference here applied consists of the fusion between the ideas of law as integrity, developed by Dworkin, and law as identity, complemented by Taylor’s social theory of identity and Bankowski’s proposal of living lawfully. In fact, this methodological approach proposes the reconstruction of a system of analytical concepts based on contemporary legal theory in order to legitimatise public decisions whose purpose is to foster the research and development of drugs for neglected diseases. In this context, the legal concepts of novelty, non-obviousness and industrial application listed in the Brazilian Industrial Property Rights Act are reinterpreted according to the theoretical reference of identity in law.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p124">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p124</a></p> Marcos Chein Feres ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 124 142 LE NEOCONSTITUTIONNALISME AU BRÉSIL : VERS L’EFFECTIVITE DES DROITS SOCIAUX ET LA LUTTE CONTRE LA CORRUPTION http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/63 <p>L’effectivité des droits sociaux est le principal défi du constitutionalisme brésilien. Pour le surmonter, il faut combattre la corruption dans la gestion de l’Etat et la crise de confiance. Cette étude consiste à prouver que la loi contre le manquement à l’obligation de probité publique constitue l’un des plus importants instruments légaux pour l’Etat démocratique de droit au Brésil. C’est par la Loi qu’il est possible de rendre viable la bonne gouvernance, de rétablir la confiance populaire dans les institutions d’État, d’améliorer la distribution des revenus, de donner davantage d’efficience aux services publics et aux politiques sociales, en plus de sauvegarder la dignité et l’estime de soi de la personne humaine.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p38">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p38</a></p> George Sarmento ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 38 64 MAJOR TRANSFORMATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY LAW AND THE TEACHINGS OF ROBERT ALEXY http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/48 <p>The text examines the three major changes of paradigm in contemporary law, seen in parallel to Robert Alexy’s teachings. The author initially presents the phenomena of (i) the overcoming of legal formalism; (ii) the advent of a post-positivist legal culture; and (iii) the rise of public law and the centrality of the Constitution. The author then moves on to identify, in the work of Robert Alexy, the notion of the centrality of fundamental rights and of the Constitution, in contemporary law. The author also tackles the transformations in constitutional interpretation, focusing on (i) the recognition of the normative force of the Constitution; (ii) the expansion of constitutional jurisdiction; and (iii) the development of a new hermeneutics and of the new categories for a constitutional interpretation. Following this line, the notion of hard cases is approached against the background of ambiguity in language, reasonable moral disagreements and tensions in constitutional norms or fundamental rights. Alexy’s theory of principles is then introduced to portray how law should be operated so as to solve relevant conflicts in modern society. Finally, there is an emphasis on the counter-majoritarian and representative roles of the Supreme Federal Tribunal, as well as on Alexy’s writings about how constitutional tribunals carry out the argumentative representation of society.</p><p>DOI: h<a href="ttp://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p107">ttp://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p107</a></p> Luís Roberto Barroso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 107 123 LA QUESTION DES DROITS HUMAINS COMME PRECEPTES OCCIDENTAUX http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/100 <p>Où nait la force des droits humains ? Les droits humains qui devront prévaloir représenteront-ils toujours la protection d’un attribut universel présent en tout être humain ? Ou bien ces standards devront-ils dépendre de la culture ou du groupe social de la personne humaine ? Tandis que certains manifestent la préoccupation concernant la limitation des recours à la critique et à la justification de la diversité des codes moraux, d’autres jugent illégitime (et improbable) la recherche de normes extensives à tous – qui que ce soit, où que ce soit. Les normes morales ne s’acquièrent qu’au sein de la structure sociale, autrement dit, dans l’ensemble particulier des restrictions physiques et sociales ? Et les raisons qu’elles ont pour justifier leurs normes ne seront-elles impositives qu’à ceux qui partagent la même condition ? Nombreuses sont les questions concernant l’étendue des droits humains. La reconnaissance légale est condition nécessaire, mais non suffisante, à la pleine jouissance des droits. Même ainsi, de nos jours il n’est pas nécessaire de recourir à des arguments moraux comme uniques raisons pour dénoncer l’illégitimité de quelque législation et de certaines décisions d’État. L’ouverture à des discussions relatives aux meilleures méthodes pour organiser les sociétés politiques et civiles est le signe essentiel à la promulgation légale des droits humains. La méthodologie utilisée était quantitative, la méthode d’approche inductive, la méthode de procédure historique, parmi les plus importants.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p86">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p86</a></p> Vivianny Kelly Galvão ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 86 106 L’IMPORTANCE DU MULTICULTURALISME DANS LES CONSTITUTIONS DES ÉTATS LATINS ET L’ABOUTISSEMENT D’UN NOUVEAU CONSTITUTIONALISME http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/67 <p>L’article vise à montrer l’importance du multiculturalisme, ainsi que les apports pour les États latino-Américain en analysant son évolution. Pour développer cette question, nous allons conceptualiser ce multiculturalisme, ainsi que l’arrivée du nouveau constitutionnalisme adopté par les constitutions latines ces dernières années, en abordant le cas spécifique de la législation brésilienne.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p65">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p65</a></p> Fernanda Marcos Kallas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 65 85 LA CONDITION DE L’ÉTRANGER DANS LA CONSTITUTION BRÉSILIENNE DE 1988 http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/76 <p>Cet article examine le traitement de la condition juridique des étrangers à la lumière de la Constitution brésilienne, ainsi que la discipline historique de la matière dans les Chartes constitutionnelles antérieures. Le travail aussi compare la législation en vigueur avec les conventions internationales existantes et avec des principes de droit international, afin de déterminer dans quelle mesure notre Charte actuelle est en conformité avec le droit international.</p><p>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p9">http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a3.n3-4.p9</a></p> Carmen Tiburcio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-31 2015-10-31 4 5-6 9 37 CREDITS, TABLE OF CONTENTS AND FOREWORD. http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/99 Credits, table of contents and foreword. Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 1 10 1988 CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/98 <p>Annotated English translation of the 1988 Constitution of Brazil.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p383</span></p> Keith S. Rosenn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 383 518 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/97 <p>General aspects of " international relations".</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p373</span></p> Celso Lafer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 373 382 BRAZILIAN INTERNATIONAL PROCEDURAL LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/96 <p>An overview on " Brazilian international procedural law ".</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p345</span></p> Jacob Dolinger ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 345 375 CHOICE OF LAW RULES AND THE MAJOR PRINCIPLES OF BRAZILIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/95 <p>Some aspects of " choice of law rules and the major principles of Brazilian private international law ".</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p309</span></p> João Grandino Rodas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 309 344 PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW: THE LAST FIVE DECADES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/94 <p>A brief review of public international law in the second half of the XXth century.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p287</span></p> Vicente Marotta Rangel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 287 308 NATIONALITY AND THE STATUS OF ALIENS IN THE 1988 BRAZILIAN CONSTITUTION http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/93 <p>An overview on "nationality and the status of aliens in the 1988 Brazilian Constitution".</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p267</span></p> Carmen Tiburcio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 267 285 HISTORY OF LABOR LAW IN BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/92 <p>A brief "history of labor law in Brazil".</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p233</span></p> Amauri Mascaro Nascimento ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 233 265 AN OVERVIEW OF BRAZILIAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/91 <p>An overview of Brazilian criminal procedure.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p207</span></p> Weber Martins Batista ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 207 232 BRAZILIAN CIVIL PROCEDURE: AN OVERVIEW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/90 <p>An overview on Brazilian Civil Procedure.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p183</span></p> José Carlos Barbosa Moreira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 183 205 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION THROUGH CRIMINAL LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/89 <p>A brief review on " environmental protection through criminal law".</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p155</span></p> Ivette Senise Ferreira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 155 181 THE NATIONALITY OF BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS AND THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF 1988 http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/88 <p>Some aspects of " The nationality of business associations and the federal Constitution of 1988".</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.141</span></p> Luiz Gastão Paes de Barros Leaes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-13 2015-10-13 4 5-6 141 154 CIVIL LIABILITY IN AIR TRANSPORTATION UNDER BRAZILIAN LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/85 <p>This Article focuses upon Brazilian case law applying Article 25 of the Warsaw Convention and a corresponding provision in Brazilian legislation.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p129</span></p> Nádia de Araujo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-12 2015-10-12 4 5-6 129 140 MORAL DAMAGES IN BRAZILIAN LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/84 <p>A brief analysis of moral damages in Brazilian law.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p121</span></p> Miguel Reale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-12 2015-10-12 4 5-6 121 127 A PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN CIVIL LAW FROM ITS ORIGINS TO THE PRESENT http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/83 <p>A panorama of Brazilian civil law.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p87</span></p> José Carlos Moreira Alves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-12 2015-10-12 4 5-6 87 120 THE 1988 CONSTITUTION AND THE MINERAL SECTOR http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/82 <p>A brief analysis of the mineral sector in the 1988 constitution.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p79</span></p> Alfredo Ruy Barbosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-12 2015-10-12 4 5-6 79 85 NOTES ON THE BRAZILIAN TAX SYSTEM http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/81 <p>Some notes on the Brazilian tax system.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p53</span></p> Flávio Bauer Novelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-12 2015-10-12 4 5-6 53 78 JUDICIAL CONTROL OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION IN BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/80 <p>The article analyses the judicial control of administrative action in Brazil.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p37</span></p> Caio Tácito ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-12 2015-10-12 4 5-6 27 52 FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE 1988 CONSTITUTION http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/79 <p>This article is intended as an introduction, essentially informative in nature, to the Brazilian Constitution, which came into force on October 5, 1988.</p><p> </p><p><span>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a0.n0.p11</span></p> Manoel Gonçalves Ferreira Filho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-10-12 2015-10-12 4 5-6 11 25 PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN LAW 00 1992 http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/75 PBL Panorama of Brazilian Law PBL Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-07-30 2015-07-30 4 5-6 1 518 VÖLKERRECHT AUS BRASILIANISCHER SICHT (ODER MIT BRASILIANISCHEM AKZENT) – ZWISCHEN UNIVERSALISMUS UND REGIONALISMUS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/49 <p>Der Artikel ist ein kurzer Bericht einer Vorlesung, die am 04. Juni 2012 an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin gehalten wurde.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p397</p> Paulo Paulo Borba Casella ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-08 2014-10-08 4 5-6 397 406 PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN LAW 02 2014 http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/47 <h4 class="tocSectionTitle">Collection of Articles</h4><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1</p> PBL Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 01 407 PARENTAL ALIENATION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE 1980 HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION: THE BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/45 <p>The number of cases of relocation of children and adolescents to Brazil has increased significantly in the last years. One must consider that abducting or wrongfully retaining children from the places of their habitual residence prevents them from enjoying fundamental rights such as those to historical, social and cultural identities and even the right enjoy full family life with both sides of their families. This article shows that unilateral relocation of children to Brazil (as well their wrongful retention in Brazilian territory)  in violation  of the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, is actually one form of Parental Alienation practiced in cross border circumstances, pursuant to Federal Law nº 12.318, from August 26, 2010 (Brazilian Parental Alienation Act). On that sense, Brazilian administrative and judicial authorities must not only engender public policies and strategies to enhance acknowledgement about rules of the Convention among Brazilian communities living abroad, they must also encourage extrajudicial agreements between interested parties to increase the rates of voluntary return of abducted or retained children. In cases brought to courts, since Parental Alienation is a form of emotional abuse of the child, magistrates must count on the opinion of interdisciplinary advisors before considering opinion of the abducted children in the ruling of the return order. In sum, the search for international cooperation with other Contracting States of the 1980 Hague Convention and the respect of the best interest of the child must be in permanent harmony.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p167</p> Bruno Rodrigues de Almeida Gisela Vieira Dalfeor Vidal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 167 192 THE BRAZILIAN JUDICIARY AS AN ORGAN OF POLITICAL CONTROL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/42 <p>The fruition of fundamental rights like healthcare, education, worthy housing and work is directly related to the creation and implantation of universal and egalitarian public policies by the Congress and the Public Administration. In the cases where the existing public policies are shown to be insufficient, inadequate or do not achieve the fundamental goals of the Federative Republic of Brazil, it arises the need of the action of the jurisdictional function to control the constitutionality over these public policies. In Brazil, this control is made both by direct way, by means of its own constitutional actions, and by diffuse way, by means of collective actions interposed in first instances courts. In this context, the enforcement of the liberal theories like Montesquieu’s Separation of Powers and the Intangibility of the Discretionary Activities reveal themselves incoherent with the Democratic Rule-of-the-Law State. In another way, the jurisdictional action is limited by the Reasonableness, by the Possible Reserve and by the Existential Minimum, and can also find some obstacles in the individual actions that end up influencing the public policies. Therefore, there is a great effort to colectivizing individual actions by Brazilian schoolars. Another problem is the difficulty of Judical Power in using the adequate procedural class action. It will be analyzed one specific decisions made by the Court of Justice of the State of São Paulo about the jurisdictional control of public policies related to the autistic people, with a goal to point out a direction to the improvement of the jurisdictional tutelage in terms of effectiveness and adequacy.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p15</p> Grasielly Spínola Ada Pellegrini Grinover ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 15 32 GUN JUMPING IN BRAZILIAN ANTITRUST LAW: A CASE STUDY IN THE OIL INDUSTRY http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/41 <p>This article presents some of the main changes introduced in the Brazilian antitrust system with the publication of Law no. 12.529, 2011, which introduced important changes in the control of acts of economic concentration - mergers, acquisitions, formation of joint ventures – which now began to be performed by the competent authority prior to the act of concentration, avoiding the consummation of transactions without the consent of CADE and analyzes the concept of Gun Jumping. The legislative change imposes a challenge for the Brazilian antitrust system: to define the boundaries between a lawful process of economic concentration and a Gun Jumping practice. In particular, a study was conducted on these impacts on the national oil industry in order to evaluate the performance of CADE in the implementation of the legislation.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p193</p> Clarissa Brandão Aline Teodoro de Moura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 193 212 RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS IN BRAZIL: NOTES ON BRAZILIAN SUBSTANTIVE AND PROCEDURAL PUBLIC POLICY http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/39 <p>After presenting a brief overview on the Brazilian legal system, the paper deals with the recognition of foreign decisions in Brazil, focusing on the requirement of public policy, both in the substantive and procedural aspects.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p33</p> Carmen Tiburcio Luís Roberto Barroso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 33 58 AN ATTEMPT FOR THE PROTECTION OF SEXUAL DIVERSITY IN BRAZILIAN LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/38 <span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p class="ecxmsonormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; tab-stops: 157.5pt;">This article intends to talk about a democratic initiative of the Brazilian Bar Association to promote human rights and sexual diversity in Brazil.  Brazil is walking up the road to protect LGBTI citizens and to legally recognize same-sex couples.  The country has guaranteed many rights to homosexual couples and their children, but the lack of a specific act to rule these matters is a problem in a country whose legal system is still very dependent to legal acts and positivism.  This work tries to show the state of art of homosexual couples’ rights in Brazil and how the proposal of a new statute to protect the rights of LGBTI people, in all aspects of their daily life could protect them and contribute for a democratic society.</p><p class="ecxmsonormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; tab-stops: 157.5pt;"> </p><p class="ecxmsonormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; tab-stops: 157.5pt;">DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p143</p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span> Marcos Vinicius Torres Pereira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 143 165 FORCED TAX COLLECTION PROCEEDINGS IN BRAZIL: AN OVERVIEW OF FEDERAL LAW NO. 6,830 http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/37 <p>In Brazil, despite there being specific legislation regulating forced tax collection proceedings, these are still largely influenced by case law of national courts. We are now living in the third decade of Federal Law No. 6,830, promulgated in 1980, which aimed to guarantee greater privileges to the treasury in the course of the debt collection saga. However, the many loopholes and lacunae gaping throughout the text have left all stakeholders – government, taxpayers and judges – somewhat exasperated. Part II of this Paper analyzes the main features of forced tax collection proceedings: registration of the tax liability, presumption of liquidity and certainty; definition of “responsible” persons in terms of the law; collateralization and challenges to the debt; and the tax liability vis-à-vis other debts. A brief look is given to other pieces of procedural legislation related to tax disputes, most importantly the suits for a writ of mandamus; actions for restoration of undue payments, and actions for annulment. Finally, summaries of case law of the Superior Court of Justice are considered. These form an essential part of Brazilian sources of case law, most especially in tax proceedings.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p267</p><p> </p> Bruno Fernandes Dias ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 267 285 PENSION DEFICIT IN BRAZILIAN SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM: LEGAL REMARKS AND STRATEGIES TOWARDS FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/36 <p>The present article consists in the brief analysis of the evolution of the Brazilian General Regime Social Security, depicting its frailty against subsequent legal reforms through which it has passed in recent years. It also deals with the impact of socioeconomic changes on the current and future financial sustainability of the Brazilian pension system. In fact, the evolution of the statistics concerning such social indicators can be quite decisive for the future sustainability of the Brazilian social security system. For this, we used the phenomenological method - hermeneutics, by privileging theoretical studies and analysis of documents and texts. Such research is very important in order to provide a glimpse of the general social security regimen in Brazil and its future prospects. The main results show that there is a budgetary concern due to the growth in life expectancy and declining birth rate. Even with the absence of the current financial deficit proclaimed by the media and the federal government, there will be the need for reform to fit the budget of Brazil’s future Social Security System. According to our analysis, the improvement of Brazilian Social Security requires legal autonomy of the Social Security Revenue (thus preventing the withdrawal of it funds to defray social security benefits belonging to another public sectors), the increase of minimum wage in the country, and public policies to stimulate the entry of informal workers in the General Social Security Regimen. Furthermore, this article suggests that, as a matter of immediate public policy, the Brazilian government should focus more energetically in improvement of educational systems, which presents itself as a strong indicator for the improvement of social welfare budget.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p309</p> Cristiane Miziara Mussi Marcos Roberto Pinto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 309 329 LE ROLE DU BRESIL DANS LA FORMATION ET L’INSTITUTION DU MARCHE COMMUN DU SUD – MERCOSUR http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/35 <p>La mise en place de l’union intégrationniste en Amérique Latine remonte aux années 1950, sous l’égide du fort partenariat Argentino-Brésilien pour faire face aux dangers de la globalisation. Dans cet article, nous procèdons à démontrer le role joué par Brésil à fin de créer cette integration colossal enommé: MERCOSUR.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p331</p> Fernanda Marcos Kallas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 331 356 INTERNATIONAL REACH OF SECURITIES REGULATION: A COMPARATIVE VIEW ON BRAZILIAN AND U.S. LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/34 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> This paper examines the international reach of securities regulation, focusing on the Brazilian and U.S. experiences in this field. The aim is to provide the reader with a view on how the issue first developed in the U.S. (and how the U.S. Supreme Court has recently changed, in part, the U.S. solution) and on how Brazilian Law, on its part, addresses regulation of transnational securities markets – mentioning particularly a landmark Administrative Enforcement Proceeding judged by the Brazilian regulatory authority (CVM).</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p213</p> Gabriel Valente dos Reis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 213 224 URBAN VIOLENCE, PRISON CONDITIONS AND HUMAN DIGNITY http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/32 <p>The paper deals with a situation that perhaps represents one of the most radical and profound challenges to the claim that contemporaneous western societies – and Brazilian society in particular – share the values concerning equality and essential or ontological dignity of mankind. It is an attempt to investigate how Brazilian society, immersed in a context of fear as a result of urban violence, deals with its prison population. This paper is divided into three main parts. Part one deals with a situation of fact: traditional, ongoing, generalized, serious and practically institutionalized violation of the fundamental rights of prison inmates in Brazil. This situation of fact easily leads one to conclude that inmates in Brazil are not treated like human beings (and are probably not even considered as human beings). Part two is an attempt to examine some possible explanations of why this situation exists. In part three, the paper tries to suggest that there is a connection between how prisoners are treated and the current level of urban violence in Brazil as a contributing factor. Considering that neither the principle of human dignity nor the actions of the legal system have been able to change the scenario that has built up in recent decades, perhaps it would be useful to suggest that inhumane treatment of inmates is not just a problem restricted to prisons: society as a whole receives the effects of this policy in the form of more violence.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p91</p> Ana Paula Barcellos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 91 111 THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF MEDIATION IN BRAZILIAN LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/31 <p>The text analyzes the introduction and evolution of the legislative treatment given to the institute of mediation in Brazilian law, from Bill No. 4,827/98 up to the Bills of the Ministry of Justice (ENAM) and the Federal Senate. Along the way we also examine the text of the Project for a new CPC (Code of Civil Procedure) and Resolution No. 125/10 from the National Council of Justice. At the end the principal aspects and trends for our legal system are set out.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p113</p> Humberto Dalla Pinho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 113 141 El ESTABLECIMIENTO VIRTUAL Y SU CONDICIÓN DE ESTABLECIMIENTO EMPRESARIAL SECUNDARIO (FILIAL) http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/30 <p>El presente trabajo analizó la posibilidad de admitirse que un sitio electrónico presente la misma naturaleza jurídica de establecimiento empresarial. En el desarrollo del trabajo, se analizó la exigencia de registro en la Junta Comercial o Notaría de Personas Jurídicas, en el Registro Nacional de Personas Juridicas (CNPJ), en la Receta Estadual y en la Receta Municipal, conforme sea el tipo de actividad, como condición para el ejercicio regular de la actividad económica, lo que presupone necesariamente la información de la sede del empresario, de la sociedad empresaria, de la sociedad simple o de la empresa individual de responsabilidad limitada. Y partiendo de esa exigencia, se desarrolló el análisis sobre el sitio electrónico que pueda ser considerado autónomo o tratarse de una mera extensión del establecimiento empresarial. Se realizó un breve abordaje sobre internet, el comercio electrónico y la web, de modo que fue presentada una sintética referencia cuanto a la historia del surgimiento de la internet, a las ventajas y desventajas del comercio electrónico, así como sobre el funcionamiento internet y de los sitios electrónicos. Se discurrió sobre el concepto y la naturaleza jurídica del establecimiento empresarial, presentando una breve exposición sobre los elementos que integran su composición y se analizó acerca de la posibilidad de encuadrar los sitios electrónicos en la concepción de establecimiento empresarial prevista en el art. 1.142, del Código Civil de 2002. El trabajo fue desarrollado utilizándose de la vertiente metodológica jurídico-sociológica, pues, examinó en que medida el cambio de comportamiento ocurrida con la celebración de negocios realizados a través internet viene influenciando en la concepción de establecimiento empresarial. Esa metodología fue escogida, pues se pretendió comprender el fenómeno jurídico de los negocios realizados en el ambiente virtual, admitiendo el Derecho como suscetível de adaptación esos cambios. La dogmática también estuvo presente en el desarrollo del trabajo, pues se analizó y se interpretaron dispositivos legales inherentes a la temática del trabajo. De la misma forma, la vertiente teórico-jurídica fue utilizada en la medida en que el trabajo también se apoyó en la revisión bibliográfica para analizar las teorías que explican la naturaleza jurídica del establecimiento empresarial y del establecimiento virtual.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p357</p> Ana Caroline Faria Guimarães Rubia Carneiro Neves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 357 394 JUDICIARY REFORM IN BRAZIL AND THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JUSTICE: IMPROVING COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN OFFENDER TREATMENT http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/29 <p>This paper intends to provide an overview of the Brazilian judicial system, its recent reform, and how the National Council of Justice (whose creation was the major goal of that reform) started to address the issues of improving the efficiency of criminal justice and increasing the use of alternatives to detention and imprisonment. The concept behind applying and enforcing convictions aims to remove the convict from society, to avoid further harm, allowing the prisoner to return to society after they have reabsorbed social values. The current challenge facing prison systems is to foster effective methods of rehabilitating and reintegrating these people into society, so that they are capable of living in society when they have finished their sentences. Community involvement in offender treatment is a current worldwide trend that has found the desirable echo in important initiatives championed by the National Council of Justice.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p69</p> Márcio Schiefler Fontes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 69 90 THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE IN BRAZIL: A MATTER OF PRINCIPLES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/28 <p>The current study aims to study the challenges related to Environmental Protection Legal System in Brazil. In fact, although Brazilian legislation concerning environmental protection and reasonable use of natural resources is quite satisfactory in theoretical perspective, the greatest hindrances to nation-wide more efficient environmental protection are the lack of environmental culture and government commitment, which results in insufficient human resources and budgetary provisions to enforce the goals established in legislation. The consequences of such diagnosis is that environmental supervision in the Brazilian Republic occurs mostly at local level and sorely needs of nation-wide enforcement and coordination.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p251</p> Marco Aurelio Peri Guedes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 251 265 MORAL, POLITICS AND METHOD: THE INFLUENCE OF RONALD DWORKIN´S PHILOSOPHY ON THE BRAZILIAN SUPREME COURT http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/25 <p>This article analyses the use of Ronald Dworkin’s philosophy by the Brazilian Supreme Court. After the Constitution of 1988, the Supreme Court gained a new and broader role in Brazilian political scene. At this time, the work of Ronald Dworkin (and its Brazilian editions) became popular and served as justification for four of the most important cases on the Supreme Court: the fidelity of Congresist’s members on their Political Party; the permission of embryonic stem cells research; the unconstitutionality of press regulation; and the homosexual civil union. Dworkin’s philosophy is a part of the changing-role of the Supreme Court in Brazil. This article offers a demonstration of the use of this philosopher in this in-progress process.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p287</p> Luciano Del Monaco Nuria López ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 287 307 BRIEF ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION DEFENSE IN BRAZIL http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/23 <p>The primary aim of this arcticle is to analyse the Brazilian Competition Policy System (BCPS) in terms of its design, its challenges and its evolution. Furthermore, it seeks to give an overview of the large and recent modifications experienced by the antitrust institutional and normative drawing in Brazil, which will greatly contribute to the freedom of the market and the welfare of the consumers.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p59</p><p> </p> Augusto Jaeger Junior Daniela Copetti Cravo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 59 68 FOREWORD, CREDITS, TABLE OF CONTENTS AND AUTHOR GUIDELINES http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/46 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p1 PBL Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 01 12 CAMPAIGN FINANCE IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE: A NESTED ANALYSIS APPROACH http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/21 <p>This paper analyzes campaign finance in a comparative perspective, giving special attention to Brazil and the Unites States. The focus regards the level of regulation on the sources of campaign contributions. Methodologically, the research design adopts a nested approach, combining descriptive and multivariate statistics with deep case studies and documental analysis. Additionally, we replicate data from the Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) to estimate a standardized measure of regulation. The results suggest that most countries show low levels of control over the sources of campaign contributions. However, both Brazil and the United States display high levels of regulation on campaign finance, despite their widely different institutional designs.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a2.n1.p225</p> Ranulfo Paranhos Dalson Filho Enivaldo Rocha José Alexandre Júnior ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-10-07 2014-10-07 4 5-6 225 250 FOREWORD, CREDITS AND TABLE OF CONTENTS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/18 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p1 Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-07-29 2013-07-29 4 5-6 01 09 PANORAMA OF BRAZILIAN LAW 01 2013 http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/22 <p>Full Issue</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1</p> PBL Panorama of Brazilian Law ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-07-26 2013-07-26 4 5-6 01 445 NEUE REGELUNGEN DES INTERNATIONALEN ZIVILVERFAHRENSRECHTS IN BRASILIEN http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/8 <p class="Standard">Zusammenfassung: Aufgrund des voranschreitenden Reformprozesses im Hinblick auf die brasilianische Zivilprozessordnung finden gegenwärtig zahlreiche Veränderungen Einzug in das internationale Zivilverfahrensrecht. Unter anderem sieht  ein Gesetzentwurf des brasilianischen Nationalkongresses Änderungen bei der internationalen Zuständigkeitsregelungen und der Wahl des Gerichtsstandes vor. Dies wird in Zukunft relevant bei internationalen Wirtschaftstransfers sein. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, durch eine genauere Analyse der Lehre und Rechtsprechung, die Unterschiede zwischen der aktuellen Zivilprozessordnung und dem Gesetzesvorhaben herauszuarbeiten.</p><p class="Standard">DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p369</p> Ely Caetano Xavier Junior Emília Lana de Freitas Castro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-07-26 2013-07-26 4 5-6 369 397 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND CURRENT TRENDS ON BRAZILIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW CONCERNING INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/20 <p>Abstract: This work aims to present the recent changes and the current trends of Brazilian Private International Law in the area of international contracts with especial focus on the enforcement of Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Brazilian legal order. Historically, the recognition of party autonomy in Private International Law has not been uniformily recognized. While since 1996, with the enforcement of the new Arbitration Law, party autonomy has been increasingly accepted in terms of international arbitration, jurisprudence on the choice of law and the choice of court clauses does not show the same progress. In fact, despite of important documents which have already been signed by the government, Brazilian Private International Law of Contracts still dates from 1942. Such contrast with internal material law represents a challenge for the full recognition of Party Autonmy in Brazilian Private International Law.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p73</p> Nadia de Araujo Fabiola I. Guedes de C. Saldanha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-15 2013-05-15 4 5-6 73 83 PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW IN BRAZIL: A BRIEF OVERVIEW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/16 <p>Abstract: The paper is intended to provide an overview of Private International Law in Brazil. With this purpose, it presents in broad lines the subject matters of the discipline, undertaking, whenever possible, comparisons with the contours given to it in the United States. In sum, the text deals with the acquisition of Brazilian nationality, the status of aliens, the determination of the applicable legislation to legal relationships with international connections – which includes the exam of Brazilian connecting rules and principles of Private International Law – and the exercise of Brazilian jurisdiction.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p11</p> Carmen Tiburcio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 11 37 IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS ON THE BRAZILIAN ARBITRATION LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/14 <p>Abstract: The arbitration as an alternative dispute settlement established itself nationally and internationally as a legitimate instrument to promote and expand access to justice. In this sense, the aim of this work is to analyze how the international treaties and conventions influenced the creation and development of the national arbitration law and its application in Brazil. Thus, we will seek to delimit what were the conventions, treaties, protocols and other international acts that had implications, positive or negative, when the adoption of Law n. 9307/96 by the Brazilian legislature, thereby seeking to analyze whether this law could actually absorb the parameters, criteria, nature and effects allowed by the international legal order. The correlation is also relevant to explain how Brazil has followed the international dynamics on bound rules to legal relations. Later, there will be an approximation, succinctly, on the main aspects of the law in relation to the object, subject, form of expression and effects of the use of arbitration and its respective application in Brazil.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p153</p> Jamile Bergamaschine Mata Diz Clarissa Correa Neto Ribeiro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 153 171 THE CISG AND PARTY AUTONOMY IN BRAZILIAN INTERNATIONAL CONTRACT LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/13 <p>Abstract: This paper focus on the principle of party autonomy in the choice of the law applicable to international contracts under CISG and Brazilian law. It analyses the different possibilities of application of this principle as well as its limits under both legal systems.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p173</p><p><strong><em> </em></strong></p> Iacyr de Aguilar Vieira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 173 186 LE DROIT PRIVE BRESILIEN : STRUCTURE, PRINCIPES CARDINAUX ET VOIES JURIDICTIONNELLES D’APPLICATION http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/12 <p>Résumé : Cette étude vise à présenter le cadre général du droit privé brésilien, privilégiant les droits des obligations et des contrats. Aussi, des incursions dans d’autres domaines, tels que le droit des biens et celui de la famille, permettront d’illustrer également certains de nos développements. L’approche retenue s’inscrit dans un courant qui considère que l’essentiel d’un droit se trouve dans les cadres stables au sein desquels les règles de droit évoluent. C’est pourquoi, sans négliger ces dernières, nous nous intéresserons à cette superstructure. Dans cette perspective, nous vérifierons la manière dont le droit privé brésilien est structuré et mettrons en relief ses principes cardinaux ainsi que les voies juridictionnelles permettant sa mise en œuvre. La réalisation de cette étude est fondée sur la conviction de l’importance des éléments de droit positif jugés fondamentaux pour la compréhension de la structure et du fonctionnement des ordres juridiques susceptibles d’être mis en comparaison. La connaissance de tels éléments permet au comparatiste d’avancer avec moins de risque sur le terrain toujours mouvant qu’est le système juridique d’autrui.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p275</p> Gustavo Vieira da Costa Cerqueira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 275 368 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN BRAZIL: SOME RESPONSES AGAINST CORRUPTION http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/11 <p>Abstract: Mobilizing investment and ensuring that it contributes to sustainable development should be one of the priority targets for all countries. The financial-economic market growth is one of the key features of contemporary society, where social, political, and economic activities easily acquire worldwide dimension.  Investment Law focuses various aspects of such drives, among other rule of law in different jurisdictions which faces recent developments, as well as multilateral agreements and the soft law that serves as a background for legal transplants and innovation. The analysis made by investors includes risk evaluation. Among other jurisdictions, Latin America and specially Brazil may be included among the hot spots for investments. Between other topics, corruption rating and scandals are scrutinized by investors, showing a widespread example of the dynamic and speed of worldwide negative impact of such events. As a result, fighting corruption has become a policy priority for countries over the past two decades and extensive reform efforts have been launched. Corruption undermines policies and programs that aim to reduce poverty; therefore attacking corruption is critical to achieving poverty reduction, and attracting investments.  This article aims to discuss the characteristics of a foreign and international investment and underlines some aspects of corruption; worldwide responses against corruption are also reported, taking into account the fact that the world is globalized and interdependent;  An overview of anti-corruption efforts in Brazil is provided.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p39</p><p> </p> Marilda Rosado de Sá Ribeiro Carolina Araújo de Azevedo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 39 72 DAS SYSTEM DER RECHTSMITTEL IN DER BRASILIANISCHEN ZIVILPROZESSORDNUNG http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/9 <p>Zusammenfassung: Dieser Artikel soll einen Einblick in das System der Rechtsmittel in Brasilien geben. Zu diesem Zweck konzentriert sich der Artikel auf die gemeinsame Struktur und die Terminologie der einzelnen Rechtsmittel und hebt das Verhältnis der Rechtsmittel zueinander sowie die jeweiligen Besonderheiten hervor. Der Artikel beginnt zum besseren Verständnis mit einem kurzen Überblick über den Gerichtsaufbau in Brasilien, bevor die einzelnen Rechtsmittel detailliert und systematisch erläutert werden.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p419</p> Domingos Novaes David Emmerich ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 419 444 OIL & GAS INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL: A BRIEF HISTORY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/7 <p>Abstract: The recently announced discovery of potential large-scale reserves in the Brazilian so called pre-salt layer has resulted in a new legal framework for the country. In this new architecture, old and new regulation share the legal arena. Exploring this context, this paper provides an overview of the emergence and evolution of the oil and gas market in Brazil, and discusses the new legal configuration where the prevailing Concession System co-exists with the Production Sharing System and the Onerous Assignment. The conclusion pinpoints the challenges that the country faces in dealing with two energy sources –oil and gas— that will play an increasing role in Brazil’s future. It also indicates that the introduction of competition also has brought new features and improvements to oil and gas industry in Brazil. Structuring a robust legal framework that will foster the necessary investments is not only a challenge for the Brazilian economy, but also one that has to be tackled by many emergent economies with newly hydrocarbon discoveries.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p223</p> Laís Palazzo Almada Virgínia Parente ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 223 252 ZUSTÄNDIGKEIT DER GLIEDSTAATEN IN FÖDERALEN SYSTEMEN FÜR DEN ABSCHLUSS VÖLKERRECHTLICHER VERTRÄGE: BRASILIEN UND DEUTSCHLAND IM VERGLEICH http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/6 <p>Die Verteilung der Außenkompetenzen zwischen Gliedstaaten und Bund stellt eine wesentliche verfassungsrechtliche Frage in fast allen föderalen Systemen. Der Umfang der beschränkten Vertragsschlusskompetenz von Gliedstaaten ist international unterschiedlich. Die meisten Bundesstaaten haben sich für eine umfassende Bundeskompetenz entschieden. Andere schließen die Gliedstaaten völlig vom völkerrechtlichen Verkehr nicht aus. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Vertragsschlusskompetenz der Gliedstaaten in Brasilien und in Deutschland zu untersuchen. Bei der Verteilung der auswärtigen Kompetenzen zwischen Bund und Gliedstaaten haben diese Staaten unterschiedliche Wege gewählt. Während in Brasilien die Union die alleinige Zuständigkeit im Bereich der Außenbeziehungen hat, genießen die deutschen Bundesländer eine beschränkte Vertragsfähigkeit. Der Zweck ist nicht festzustellen, welches System das Beste ist, sondern aus den Erfahrungen dieser Länder ihre Lösungen für den Konflikt zwischen einheitliche Repräsentation des Staates und Handlungsfreiheit der Gliedstaate auf internationale Ebene wie auch deren Auswirkungen auf die Außenpolitik des Gesamtstaates aufzuzeigen.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p399</p> Eleonora Mesquita Ceia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 399 418 THE COLLECTIVE ACTIONS HELD HOSTAGE BY THE AUTHORITARISM http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/5 <p>Abstract: The judicial protection of  collective interests represents, at the end of the millennium, one of the most impressive conquests of the Brazilian legal system. The transindividual interests which are particular to mass society are full of political relevance and, to that extent, are capable of transforming stratified judicial concepts. The recognition of these interests and the need to protect them have highlighted their political configuration in Brazil. In this way, the theory of public liberty forged a new “generation” of fundamental rights. In the same way, one can note that, at the constitutional level, the concepts of jurisdiction and litigation were renewed, while some fundamental guarantees were reformed. The most notable revolution, however, might have taken place in the procedural sphere, departing from an individual process model toward a social process model In Brazil, the Judiciary power has also taken advantage of class action lawsuits in terms of rationalization and work projection. The social objective of the judicial function was lost in view of the fragmentation and the pulverization of conflicts, always regarded as individual. There is a notable tendency to replace atomized decisions with a molecular treatment of litigation. Nevertheless, the Executive power has revealed itself to be inattentive to the reality of collective action and has tried to reduce its effectiveness, limiting access to courts, compressing the associative moment, and diminishing the role of the Judiciary. In this perspective, many years after the introduction of judicial protection for collective and diffuse interests in Brazil, the balance would have been positive, had the government not adopted an authoritarian line when applying legal treatment to the matter. It is possible to affirm that collective actions are a part of the current legal routine, despite the attacks which they suffer. The Judiciary power is significantly implanted in this context, it is conscious of its new role and of its renewed importance, and by way of its sentences, it was capable of occupying a position of leadership which points toward future challenges. The only note that rings false in this context is the attitude of the government with relation to the use of Provisional Measures to reverse such a situation, attacking collective actions and trying to diminish their efficiency in order to limit the access to Justice, to frustrate the associative moment and to make the Judiciary seem less important. The Legislative power, complacent or inattentive, has not been able to resist the attacks and to react to the attitudes of the government.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p85</p> Ada Pellegrini Grinover ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 85 99 THE DECRIMINALIZATION OF THE ABORTION OF ANENCEPHALIC FETUSES: RELEVANT DISCUSSIONS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/4 <p>Abstract: After eight years of endless discussions about the decriminalization of the abortion of anencephalic fetus, on April 24, 2012, the claims contained on the Allegation of Disobedience of Fundamental Precepts n. 54/2004 were finally deemed relevant by the Brazilian Supreme Court, and the long-awaited therapeutic discontinuation of such pregnancies was no longer punished under the Brazilian Penal Code. This decision was upheld as a victory of those who believe that the right to life has no absolute character, nor is etiologically superior to other fundamental rights, like the mother’s freedom to reproductive autonomy, and the legalization of these specific cases of abortion is based on an obedience to the constitutional precept known as the Dignity of the Human Person, ideally achieved by allowing an attenuation to the immeasurable physical, moral and psychological suffering experienced by those pregnant women. The present article will analyze the civil, criminal and constitutional questions relevant to the debate, aiming to promote reflections about the pertinence of the Supreme Court’s decision inside a global context in which the valorization of a subset of human rights, especially those that concern women’s reproductive health, is being vigorously understood as of great importance.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p253</p> Rafael da Silva Glatzl ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 253 274 SIDE-EFFECTS OF THE GROWING TREND TOWARDS THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF MEDIATION http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/3 <p>Abstract: For some time, Europe, Brazil and the United States have been suffering from the systemic inefficiency of their Courts, with a significant impact on the guarantee of access to justice for their citizens, making alternative dispute resolution (A.D.R.) a constant presence in both civil and common law systems of jurisdiction. The upshot has been the institutionalization of ADRs, taking the form of a routine presence in codes of civil procedure, while their practice is connected to the courts. However, both institutionalization and the obligation to take part in mediation programs before or after starting the suit are exceptional measures, which must be adopted with caution. The experience of the European Union with its Directive, the Brazilian experience of inserting mediation into the project for the new Code of Civil Procedure and the use of mediation to overcome the conflicts arising from the serious mortgage crisis in the U.S.A. will be analyzed in this article, seeking to demonstrate that the progress and diffusion of ADRs does not necessarily entail a breach with their underlying foundation, and particularly with regard to mediation, the loss of its identity, for it to be inserted into the context of access to justice.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p187</p> Humberto Dalla Pinho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 187 221 THE “SHAKESPEAREAN ROSE” BLOSSOMS DOWN THE EQUATOR: REFLECTIONS UPON THE IMPACT OF BRAZILIAN SUPREME COURT’S DECISION RECOGNIZING THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF SAME-SEX CIVIL UNIONS http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/15 <p>Abstract: In May 5th 2011, Brazilian Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal) decided unanimously that Brazilian Constitution allows civil unions between two people regardless their gender, thus admitting same-sex partnerships as a legitimate type of family entity entitled to special protection provided by article 226 of current Brazilian Political Charter. However, the repercussions of such decision have yet to be fully realized, particularly because of paragraph 3 of the same article, which explicitly determines that the law shall facilitate the conversion of a civil union into marriage. Hence, the discussion about same-sex civil marriage has regained its momentum in Brazilian legal scenario, whether in legislative or judiciary arenas. This article means to demonstrate how the Brazilian Supreme Court has already created a legal substrate towards isonomic treatment for both different-sex and same-sex civil unions, which would make it quite illogical to admit hierarchical rankings between them.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p101</p> Bruno Rodrigues de Almeida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 101 118 CROSS-BORDER CONSUMPTION AND BRAZILIAN LAW http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/17 <p>Abstract: The purchase of a product or service by a consumer directly abroad and the remote consumption of goods are the two main ways in which transnational consumption occurs. This new contractual dynamic – a direct result of the development of transport and communication facilities - has consequences not only for consumer protection but also for trade law. It demands from doctrine, courts and legislators an effort to solve problems arising therefrom. Important lessons can be learned from the application of economic theory to law among the difficulties to fit private international law to constitutional principles. New paradigms proposed by the courts in recent years brought great expectations in the national legal system to the evolution of consumer protection concerning international trade. Theoretical developments are now necessary to elaborate regulatory proposals under trademark and corporate law - with particular attention to financial institutions - so as to grant greater protection to the vulnerable consumer assuring security and predictability to the system, which are essential to the correct operation of the market.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p119</p> Raphael Carvalho de Vasconcelos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-10 2013-05-10 4 5-6 119 138 RECOGNITION AND THE RIGHT TO DIFFERENCE: CRITICAL THEORY, DIVERSITY AND THE HUMAN RIGHTS CULTURE http://panoramaofbrazilianlaw.com/index.php/BrLaw/article/view/2 <p>Abstract: This article intends to analyze the several historical experiences forming the culture of the actual stage of human rights culture. How Brazilian Law is absorbing this transformation is a focused analysis of this research.</p><p>DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17768/pbl.a1.n1.p139</p> Eduardo Carlos Bianca Bittar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2013-05-09 2013-05-09 4 5-6 139 152